Category Archives: Handouts
There is a two-letter word that is perhaps used more than any other two-letter word, and that is ‘UP.’
Today we studyed the word “UP”. UP has many meaning when it is combined with other words. To know more detail, please refer to today’s handout.
A legislator from either the Senate or General Assembly may sponsor a bill individually or at the suggestion of a constituent, interest group, public official or the Governor. The legislator may ask other legislators in the same House to join as co-sponsors.
At the legislator’s direction, the Office of Legislative Services, a non-partisan agency of the Legislature, provides research and drafting assistance, and prepares the bill in proper technical form.
The prime sponsor delivers the bill to the House. Copies of the “proposed” bill are printed. The bill title is read aloud at the next session by the Senate Secretary or General Assembly Clerk. This is the first reading. The bill is made available in electronic form.
The President of the Senate or Speaker of the General Assembly usually refers the bill to a committee for review, but may send the bill directly to second reading to speed its consideration.
When scheduled by the chair, the committee considers the bill at an open public meeting. The committee may report the bill to the House as is, with amendments, or by a substitute bill. If not considered or reported, the bill remains in committee.
When the bill is reported to the floor (or referred directly wihout committee review), its title is read aloud for the second reading. The bill can also be amended on the floor at this point.
When scheduled by the President or Speaker, the bill is given a third reading. As it is posted for a vote, members may debate the bill. To ensure thorough consideration, rules prohibit a second and third reading on the same day, except by an emergency vote of three-quarters of the members.
A bill passes each House when approved by a majority of the authorized members (21 votes in the Senate, 41 votes in the Assembly).
When a bill is delivered to the second House, it will go through the same process from first reading and committee referral through final vote. If the second House amends the bill, it is returned to the first House for a vote on the changes. A bill receives final legislative approval only when it passes both Houses in identical form.
After legislative passage, the bill is sent to the Governor. The Governor may sign it, conditionally veto it (returning it for changes), or veto it absolutely. The Governor may also veto single line items of appropriation bills.
A bill becomes law upon the Governor’s signature or after 45 days if no action is taken. If the House of origin is not in session on the 45th day, the tie is extended until it reconvenes. (Different rules apply to bills passed during the last 45 days of a two-year session). If vetoed, a bill can become law if the Legislature overrides the veto by a 2/3 vote. A law takes effect on the day specified in its text or, if unspecified, the next July 4th.
=> You can search all existing laws and bills on Law Library of the New Jersey State Library webpage.
Today we talked about TV and TV show in our English conversation group. What is your favorite TV show? If you can not find the handout, don’t worry about it. The handout is here.
You’re talking to your native English-speaking friend about your recent breakup and how depressed you are when suddenly he turns toward you and says “Don’t worry about it man, girls like that are a dime a dozen!” You then stare at your friend in confusion. You simply don’t understand why your good friend is comparing the girl that was once the love of your life to $1.20.
Actually “dime a dozen” doesn’t mean anything even remotely close to what the individual words in the phrase implies. For native speakers of English, a dime a dozen simply means that something is common and easy to obtain. Because we cannot figure out the meaning by examining the phrase alone, “dime a dozen” is what we call an idiom. As a non-native speaker of English, the best way to understand idioms is to memorize their meanings from the standpoint of a native speaker. We’ve listed the 10 most common idioms in English and their actual meanings.
1. Piece of cake – No, when someone says that the assignment they just finished was a piece of cake, it does not mean that their professor gave them a red velvet cupcake for their midterm paper, what piece of cake actually means is that something is very easy to complete.
2. Costs an arm and a leg – It would be a strange world we lived in if buying that fancy shiny purse literally required us to chop off our body parts to give as tribute to the Louis Vuitton gods. When something costs an arm and a leg it actually means that something is very expensive.
3. Break a leg – Oh, look, another idiom about legs. You’re about to take your dreaded calculus final and before you head into your classroom your roommate texts you, “Break a Leg!” Why, you think in your head, would he ever wish that upon me? I thought we were cool with each other. Well, your roommate surely doesn’t want your bones to break while walking to your seat in the exam room that’s for sure. Break a leg actually means good luck!
4. Hit the books – If you’re a student in an English speaking environment you’re probably going to be hearing this phrase a lot. Before you imagine students running into their campus library and punching, kicking and wrestling apart the complete works of Shakespeare, we would just like to say that hit the books actually means to study. There, you can still punch books in your spare time if you want, we won’t judge you.
5. Let the cat out of the bag – Why would someone put their cat in a bag? What did the cat ever do to them? This idiom actually means to disclose a secret that was supposed to be kept, well, as a secret. The next time someone lets the cat out of the bag do not immediately pick up your phone and call animal cruelty control.
6. Hit the nail on the head – This idiom has to do with doing or saying something that is precisely right. If you don’t understand this, just think about that sweet feeling you get when you swing a hammer at a nail and hit it perfectly.
7. When pigs fly – So, have you ever seen a pig fly before? Never? Me neither. This idiom basically means that something will never happen, like fat little pink mammals soaring toward the sun!
8. You can’t judge a book by its cover – How many awesome books do you think you’ve never read in your life just because the cover did not catch your eye? This idiom does not only apply to books however, but can be used for everything in general. Essentially it means that you should not decide upon something based just on outward appearances.
9. Bite off more than you can chew – Imagine your waiter brings you the biggest juiciest hamburger from your favorite American restaurant. In your hunger, you grab it quickly and take a giant bite out of it. Unfortunately, the bite you’ve taken is too big, and you end up looking like an idiot trying to shove this bite down your throat while drinking water and trying not to choke. That is the most literal sense of the meaning, but in general it just means to attempt to take on a task that is too much for you to handle.
10. Scratch someone’s back – We all know how difficult it is to scratch that itch on your back that your hand just aren’t flexible enough to reach, so why would you want to scratch some random person’s smelly back? Because if you do, they may eventually be willing to scratch your own smelly back when you need it! What this idiom means is to help someone out with the assumption that they will return the favor in the future!
1. Piece of cake
“How did your last final go?”
“I was really worried, but it was actually a piece of cake!”
2. Costs an arm and a leg
“I was going to buy a new car, but it cost an arm and a leg”
3. Break a leg
“You’re performing in a play tonight? Well, break a leg!”
4. Hit the books
“If I want to do well on that test, I’m really going to have to hit the books.”
5. Let the cat out of the bag
“You told Claire about the surprise party? I can’t believe you let the cat out of the bag!”
6. Hit the nail on the head
“You seem angry”
“Well, you really hit the nail on the head on that one!”
7. When pigs fly
“I’m going to be an astronaut.”
“yeah. . . When pigs fly!”
8. You can’t judge a book by its cover
“She looks like such a snob”
“Well, you can’t judge a book by its cover”
9. Bite off more than you can chew
“I’m getting really stressed out lately”
“Well, don’t bite off more than you can chew”
10. Scratch someone’s back
“I knew I was going to get that promotion, I’ve been scratching her back for so long!”
Today we had a very fun activity in conversation class. We completed one part of the story of a blind date. Then, we folded the paper over and passed it to the person next to us. At the end, we had some very interesting stories.
By Daiane Tamanaha, Dartha Cabot Hopkins (*), Mamatha, and Yevgeniy Ziskin
A Blind Date
In a preparation for my blind date last week, I had decided to wear a wonderful dress, totally sparkle. Also, I wore high heels. My necklace was very chic and my earrings were oversized. As an ice-breaker, I had to bought my date a bottle of champagne and two crystal glasses. I wrapped them carefully. We had arranged to meet in my favorite restaurant. It is an Italian restaurant.
When I arrived, I couldn’t believe my eyes. My date was wearing a fluorescent baseball cap turned backwards on his head, a loud sports coat, a “grapeful dead” teeshirt and blue swede shoes. After we had down, my date surprised me again by ordering only salad and fresh juice. Then, out of the blue, my date got up and began to sing a happy birthday song. How did he know it was my birthday? It was a crazy song that involved dancing “the chicken”, the bump and the “boug-a-lou”.
Out of the corner of my eye, I noticed that the waiter was carrying a cake. A big one, by the way. It was a heart shape cake. Nobody could have anticipated what happend next but, as it turned out, it was the perfect end to the evening. The next month we saw ourselves in a new movie because our blind date was a blind filming.
In a preparation for my blind date last week, I had decided to wear a black top and blue jeans. As an ice-breaker, I had to bought my date a box of chocolate. We had arranged to meet in my favorite restaurant. It is a Moroccan restaurant. The food is great. Also, there are some belly dancers. They are gorgeous.
When I arrived, I couldn’t believe my eyes. My date was wearing a luxurious evening dress. After we had down, my date surprised me again by ordering the most expensive dish on the menu – rack of lamb. I began to worry about who was going to pay for our meal.
Then, out of the blue, my date got up and kissed me on the cheek. Out of the corner of my eye, I noticed that the waiter was watching my date and I. Nobody could have anticipated what happend next but, as it turned out, it was the perfect end to the evening. The music began to have a great rhythm for wild dancing. People could not resist getting up to dance crazily. Everybody danced with everyone else. I met two more potencial dates and I had a wonderful time. We all collapsed laughing!
In a preparation for my blind date last week, I had decided to wear jeans and T-shirt. As an ice-breaker, I had to bought my date candies and roses. We had arranged to meet in my favorite restaurant. It is “The Four Seasons” in New York City. This restaurant is very luxurious, with large bouquets of exotic flowers, a quartet of musicians playing soft music and elegant waiters.
When I arrived, I couldn’t believe my eyes. My date was wearing red top and blue jeans. After we had down, my date surprised me again by ordering eight courses meal! Oh, my godness! I couldn’t eat everything! Also, I’m on a diet! Anyway, I’m a vegetarian and my date ordered only meat! I had to eat only the side dishes! Then, out of the blue, my date got up and asked me to go to the patio.
Out of the corner of my eye, I noticed that the waiter was taking pictures of us. Nobody could have anticipated what happend next but, as it turned out, it was the perfect end to the evening. I took a piece of cake and threw it at my date. He was a crazy guy! I went home and started watching a romantic movie. The real life is not easy!
In a preparation for my blind date last week, I had decided to wear my sequined, transparent gown that I had worn to a fancy wedding. I wanted to be very special. As an ice-breaker, I had to bought my date a box of chocolate, but it was not a simple one. It was a 99% cacau. Have you ever tried it? We had arranged to meet in my favorite restaurant. It is the best McDonald’s in my neighborhood!
When I arrived, I couldn’t believe my eyes. My date was wearing a flip-flop, T-shirt, and bermuda. Also, he was wearing sunglasses and a Panama hat. Crazy!! After we had down, my date surprised me again by ordering a chicken tikka (Indian food). Then, out of the blue, my date got up and started singing a terrible song. He didn’t know how to sing!! He forgot the lyrics and he was singing out of tune!!
Out of the corner of my eye, I noticed that the waiter was lighting candles on a cake and dimming the lights in the restaurant. Nobody could have anticipated what happend next but, as it turned out, it was the perfect end to the evening. We sat out the restaurant and my date brought me a cake. We cut it together and we enjoyed our time.
(*) Dartha Cabot Hopkins is a volunteer tutor.